Research

A Quality Test You Can Trust

OET has featured prominently in research literature relating to language testing in specific-purpose contexts.  Findings and recommendations from key research studies have informed the development of OET test material and tasks, ensuring the test remains relevant.

Published material

2016

Elder, C. (2016) Exploring the limits of authenticity in LSP testing: The case of a specific-purpose language test for health professionals. Language Testing, Vol. 33 Issue 2, p147-152. 6p. DOI: 10.1177/0265532215607397.

Elder, C., McNamara, T. (2016) The hunt for “indigenous criteria” in assessing communication in the physiotherapy workplace. Language Testing, Vol. 33 Issue 2, p153-174. 22p. DOI: 10.1177/0265532215607398.

Hoekje, B. (2016) “Language,” “communication,” and the longing for the authentic in LSP testing. Language Testing. Vol. 33 Issue 2, p289-299. DOI: 10.1177/0265532215607921.

Macqueen, S., Pill, J. & Knoch, U. (2016) Language test as boundary object: Perspectives from test users in the healthcare domain. Language Testing, Vol. 33 Issue 2, p271-288. DOI: 10.1177/0265532215607401.

Manias, E. & McNamara, T. (2016) Standard setting in specific-purpose language testing: What can a qualitative study add? Language Testing. Vol. 33 Issue 2, p235-249. DOI: 10.1177/0265532215608411.

O’Hagan, S., Pill, J. & Zhang, Y. (2016) Extending the scope of speaking assessment criteria in a specific-purpose language test: Operationalizing a health professional perspective. Language Testing, Vol. 33 Issue 2, p195-216. DOI: 10.1177/0265532215607920.

Pill, J. (2016) Drawing on indigenous criteria for more authentic assessment in a specific-purpose language test: Health professionals interacting with patients. Language Testing, Vol. 33 Issue 2, p175-193. DOI: 10.1177/0265532215607400.

Pill, J., & McNamara, T. (2016) How much is enough? Involving occupational experts in setting standards on a specific-purpose language test for health professionals. Language Testing. Vol. 33 Issue 2, p217-234. DOI: 10.1177/0265532215607402.

Woodward-Kron, R. & Elder, C. (2016) A comparative discourse study of simulated clinical roleplays in two assessment contexts: Validating a specific-purpose language test. Language Testing. Vol. 33 Issue 2, p251-270. DOI: 10.1177/0265532215607399.

2015

Frost, K., O’Hagan, S., Knoch, U., Pill, J. (2015). Verification of checklist items across professions: an investigation of the relevance of new criteria for assessing simulated professional-patient interactions in the OET Speaking sub-test. Final Report. Melbourne: Language Testing Research Centre, University of Melbourne.

O’Hagan, S. (2015, June) Relating assessment processes for migrating doctors in different jurisdictions to perceptions of language and communication. Presentation at the 13th Interdisciplinary Conference Communication, Medicine and Ethics (COMET), University of Hong Kong.

Pill, J., O’Hagan, S. (2015, June). Relating assessment processes for migrating doctors in different jurisdictions to perceptions of language and communication. Presentation at the 13th Interdisciplinary Conference Communication, Medicine and Ethics (COMET), University of Hong Kong.

Yahalom, S. (2015, June) Health professionals’ perspectives on referral letters: implications for education, communication and patient safety. Presentation at the 13th Interdisciplinary Conference Communication, Medicine and Ethics (COMET), University of Hong Kong.

2014

Elder, C., McNamara, T., Woodward-Kron, R., Pill, J., & Hoekje, B. (2014, August). How authentic can we get? Reconstructing a specific-purpose language test to reflect health professionals’ values. Symposium of 4 papers with discussant. AILA, Brisbane.

Frost, K. & O’Hagan, S. (November 21). Building a validation argument for the Occupation English Test (OET): Investigating test taker processes on the listening subtest. ACER/LTRC Symposium, Melbourne.

Frost, K. & O’Hagan, S. (2014, November 27-29). Building a validation argument for the Occupation English Test (OET): Investigating test taker processes on the listening subtest. ALTAANZ conference, Brisbane, Australia.

Hamp-Lyons, L., Elder, C., Douglas, D., Lockwood J., Jin, Y., O’Hagan, S., McNamara, T., Pill, J., & Davies, A. (2014, June 4-6). The Universal and the Specific: Must proficiency choose? Paper presented at Language Testing Research Colloquium, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Knoch, U. (2014, November). The communicative functions of medical records. Occupational English Test Stakeholder Forum, Melbourne

Knoch, U., Silverman, J., Pill, J., McNamara, T. (2014). Report on the review of draft proposal for revised specification of OET listening. Melbourne: Language Testing Research Centre, University of Melbourne.

Macqueen, S. Elder, C, Pill, J. & Knoch, U. (2014, August 10-15). In the real world: Perceptions of the relationship between the Occupational English Test and the workplace. AILA, Brisbane.

Macqueen, S. Elder, C, Pill, J. & Knoch, U. (November 21). In the real world: Perceptions of the relationship between the Occupational English Test and the workplace. ACER/LTRC Symposium, Melbourne. ACER/LTRC Symposium, Melbourne.

Macqueen, S., Yahalom, S., Kim, H. & Knoch. U. (2014, November 27-29). Exploring writing demands in healthcare settings. ALTAANZ conference, Brisbane, Australia.

McNamara, T., Elder, C., O’Hagan, S., Pill, J. (2014, June). Assessment criteria – general or specific? The case of English language testing for health professionals. Presentation at the36th Language Testing Research Colloquium (LTRC) International Language Testing Association (ILTA), Amsterdam.

McNamara, T. & Pill, J. (2014, April 25-29). Reforming the criteria used to assess the spoken English clinical communication skills of international medical graduates. Paper presented at 16th Ottawa Conference, Ottawa, Canada.

O’Hagan, S., Frost, K., Knoch, U. (November 21). Scoping study of professional to professional communication in healthcare: an exploration of interaction and task types in inter- and intra- professional spoken communication. ACER/LTRC Symposium, Melbourne.

O’Hagan, S., Manias, E., Elder, C., Pill, J., Woodward-Kron, R., McNamara, T., Webb, G. & McColl, G. (2014). What counts as effective communication in nursing? Evidence from nurse educators’ and clinicians’ feedback on nurse interactions with simulated patients. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 70(6), 1344-1354.

O’Hagan, S. & Pill, J. (2014, November 27-29). Language testing in medical registration procedures: Perceptions of the role of language and communication skills. ALTAANZ conference, Brisbane, Australia.

Pill, J., Elder, C., McNamara, T., & O’Hagan, S. (2014, June 4-6). Beyond the limits of universal criteria: Using indigenous criteria in assessing clinical communication in ESL. Paper presented at Language Testing Research Colloquium, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Pill, J. & Knoch, U. (2014). Review of data collected for OET/ARC Linkage study to verify revised OET speaking checklist. Final report. Melbourne: Language Testing Research Centre, University of Melbourne.

Pill, J., & Knoch, U. (2014, October). Review of data collected for OET/ARC Linkage study to verify revised OET speaking checklist. Report. (28 pp.). Melbourne, Australia: Language Testing Research Centre, University of Melbourne.

Woodward-Kron, R., Elder, C., & Pill, J. (2014, June 19-21). Patient-centred communication in an English language screening test for health professionals: Locating clinical engagement and interaction in candidate performance. The Language of Medicine: Science, Practice and Academia – An International Conference, Bergamo, Italy.

Woodward-Kron, R., Elder, C., Pill, J. (2014, June). Authenticity and patient-centred communication in an English language screening test for clinicians. Presentation at The Language of Medicine: Science, Practice and Academia – An International Conference. CERLIS – University of Bergamo.

Woodward-Kron, R., Pill, J., Elder, C. (2014, June). Authenticity and patient-centred communication in an English language screening test for clinicians. Presentation at the 12th Interdisciplinary Conference Communication, Medicine and Ethics (COMET), University of Lugano.

Woodward-Kron, R., Pill, J., & Elder, C. (2014, June 26-28). Patient-centred communication in an English language screening test for health professionals: Locating clinical engagement and interaction in candidate performance. Communication, Medicine and Ethics Conference, Lugano, Switzerland.

Zhang, Y., O’Hagan, S., & Pill, J. (2014, July 10-13). Expanding the construct underlying speaking assessment criteria in OET. CLESOL Conference, Wellington.

2013

Elder, C, et al. (2013, August). Towards improved healthcare communication: Development and validation of language proficiency standards for non-native English speaking health professionals. Final report for The OET Centre. ARC Linkage project: The Towards Improved Healthcare Communication project was carried out with funding from the Australian Research Council Linkage Project LP0991153 and the Occupational English Test (OET) Centre (Industry Partner).

Elder, C, et al. (2013). Developing and validating language proficiency standards for non-native English speaking health professionals. Papers in Language Testing and Assessment. Vol. 2, 66-70.

Frost, K. (2013). Investigating test taker processes on two ESP listening tasks. Final report to the Occupational English Test Centre. 56 pp. Melbourne: Language Testing Research Centre, The University of Melbourne.

Frost, K., Kim, H., Pill, J., Fraser, C. & Knoch, U. (2013, July). Investigating test takers processes on an LSP “skim and scan” reading task: A validation study of the Occupational English Test. Paper presented at the 35th Language Testing Research Colloquium (LTRC), Seoul, South Korea.

Macqueen, S., Pill, J., Elder, C. & Knoch, U. (2013). Investigating the test impact of the OET: A qualitative study of stakeholder perceptions of test relevance and efficacy. Final report to the Occupational English Test Centre. 51 pp. Melbourne: Language Testing Research Centre, The University of Melbourne.

McNamara, T., (2013, September). Using English for professional purposes. Presentation at the Cambridge English Centenary Conference, University of Cambridge.

McNamara, T., O’Hagan, S. & Pill, J. (July, 2013). Extending the scope of speaking assessment criteria in a specific-purpose language test for migrating health professionals. Paper presented at the 11th Interdisciplinary Conference Communication, Medicine & Ethics (COMET), the University of Melbourne, Australia.

McNamara, T., Pill, J., Pryor, E., Kim, H. (2013, June). Language in professional contexts: Who defines the construct? Presentation at the 11th Conference on Nordic Language as a Second and Foreign Language [Den 11:e konferensen om Nordens språk som andra- och främmandespråk] (NORDAND 11), Stockholm University.

O’Hagan, S., Knoch, U., Rastgou, A., Sitajalabhorn, W., Fraser, C. & Benevento, C. (2013). A comparison of the discourse produced at different score levels of the OET writing sub-test. Final report to the Occupational English Test Centre. 100 pp. Melbourne: Language Testing Research Centre, The University of Melbourne.

O’Hagan, S., Pill, J., Zhang, Y. & Elder, C. (2013, July). Expanding the construct underlying speaking assessment criteria in a specific-purpose language test. Paper presented at the 35th Language Testing Research Colloquium (LTRC), Seoul, South Korea.

Pill, T. J. H. (2013). What doctors value in consultations and the implications for specific-purpose language testing. (Unpublished PhD Thesis). University of Melbourne, Melbourne.

Pill, J. (July, 2013). An exploratory model of what doctors value in the doctor-patient consultation. Paper presented at the 11th Interdisciplinary Conference Communication, Medicine & Ethics (COMET), the University of Melbourne, Australia.

Pill, J., Elder, C., McNamara, T., Woodward-Kron, R., Manias, E., McColl, G., Webb, G., O’Hagan, S. (2013, October). Capturing health professionals’ values and standards on a specific purpose language test. Presentation at OET Forum, OET Centre, Melbourne.

Pill, J., McNamara, T., Elder, C., O’Hagan, S., Woodward-Kron, R. (2013, November). How much is enough? Standard setting on a specific-purpose English language test for health professionals. Presentation at the Applied Linguistics Association of Australia (ALAA)/Applied Linguistics Association of New Zealand (ALANZ) Joint Conference, Wellington.

Pill, J., O’Hagan, S., Zhang, Y. & Elder, C. (2013, May). Evaluating the impact of applying indigenous assessment criteria in an LSP test. Paper presented at the 10th Annual European Association for Language Testing and Assessment (EALTA) Conference, Istanbul, Turkey.

Vidakovic, I and Khalifa, H (2013) Stakeholders’ Perceptions of Occupational English Test (OET): An exploratory study. University of Cambridge ESOL Examinations Research Notes, Issue 54, pp 29-32.

2012

Elder, C., Pill, J., Woodward-Kron, R., McNamara, T., Manias, E., McColl, G., & Webb, G. (2012). Health professionals’ views of communication: Implications for assessing performance on a health-specific English language test. TESOL Quarterly, 46(2), 409-419.

Frost, K., Pill, J. Knoch, U., Kim, H., & Fraser, C. (2012, November 9-10). Investigating test taker processes on an LSP reading test designed to prompt skimming and scanning. Paper presented at the ALTAANZ conference, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia.

Frost, K., Kim, H., Pill, J., Fraser, C. & Knoch, U. (2012, December). Investigating test taker processes on an LSP reading test designed to prompt skimming and scanning. Final report to the Occupational English Test Centre. 34pp. Language Testing Research Centre, University of Melbourne.

Macqueen, S., Yahalom, S., Kim, H. & Knoch, U. (2012, October). Exploring writing demands of healthcare professionals. Final report to the Occupational English Test Centre. 31pp. Melbourne: Language Testing Research Centre. 4

McNamara, T. (2012, May). At last: Assessment and English as a lingua franca. Presentation at the 5th International Conference of English as a Lingua Franca (EFL5), Boğaziçi University, Istanbul

Pill, J. (2012, March 28-31). Interrogating criteria for assessing speaking performance on the Australian OET. Paper presented at Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages, Inc. (TESOL) 46th International Convention, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.

Pill, J. (2012, December). Medical educators’ feedback on trainees’ interaction with patients: perspectives on “language”. Presentation at the 2nd International Conference Applied Linguistics and Professional Practice (ALAPP), University of Technology, Sydney.

Pill, J. (2012, April 3-5). Using health professionals‟ feedback commentary to inform the validation of an ESP rating scale. International Language Testing Association (ILTA) 34th Language Testing Research Colloquium (LTRC), Princeton, New Jersey, USA.

Pill, J. & Harding, L. (in press). Defining the language assessment literacy gap: Evidence from a parliamentary inquiry. Language Testing.

Pill, J. & O’Hagan, S. R. (2012, November 9-10). Extending the scope of speaking assessment criteria in a specific-purpose language test. Paper presented at the ALTAANZ conference, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia.

Pill, J., & Woodward-Kron, R. (2012). How professionally relevant can language test be?: A response to Wette (2011). Language Assessment Quarterly, 9(1), 105-108.

Pill, J., Woodward-Kron, R., Elder, C., McNamara, T., McColl, G, Manias, E., Webb, G. (2012, March). Exploring language skills through Australian examiners’ feedback on doctor-patient interaction. Poster presented at the 46th International Convention, Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages, Inc. (TESOL), Philadelphia.

Pill, J., Woodward-Kron, R., Elder, C., McNamara, T., O’Hagan, S., McColl, G, Manias, E., Webb, G. (2012, December). Educator feedback on GP registrar interaction with patients: perspectives on “language”. Presentation at Communicating Health Symposium , University of Melbourne.

Villa, S. (2012). Examiner interaction in a role-play task of speaking proficiency test. Unpublished Master‟s Thesis. School of Languages and Linguistics, University of Melbourne. 7

Wette, R (2012). How professionally relevant can language tests be?: The author responds. Language Assessment Quarterly, 9, 1, 109-112.

Woodward-Kron, R., van Die, D., Webb, G., Pill, J., Elder, C., McNamara, T., Manias, E., & McColl, G. (2012). Perspectives from physiotherapy supervisors on student-patient communication. International Journal of Medical Education, 3, 166-174.

2011

Harding, L., & Pill, J. (2011, May). The virtuous assessor: Marking decisions as ethical decisions. Paper presented at the 8th Annual EALTA Conference, Università per Stranieri, Siena, Italy.

Harding, L., Pill, J., & Ryan, K. (2011). Assessor decision-making while marking a note-taking listening task: The case of the OET. Language Assessment Quarterly, 8(2), 108-126.

Knoch, U. (2011). Investigating the effectiveness of individualized feedback to rating behaviour – a longitudinal study. Language Testing 28, 2, 179-200

Neve, G., Pill, J. (2011, October). The Occupational English Test: Recent developments and the project Towards improved healthcare communication. Presentation at the Assessing Authorities Meeting, Educational and Professional Recognition Unit, Australian Education International, Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations, Melbourne.

O’Hagan, S. R., Pill, J., Elder, C., McNamara, T. & Woodward-Kron, R. (2011, November/December). Are linguistic assessment criteria defensible for LSP assessment? Paper presented at the ALAA 36th Congress, University of Canberra and the Australian National University, Canberra, Australia.

Pill, J., Elder, C., McNamara, T., Woodard-Kron, R., McColl, G., Manias, E., Webb, G. (2011, July). Feedback on GP registrars’ interactions with patients: Investigating what matters. Poster presented at the 9th Interdisciplinary Conference Communication, Medicine and Ethics (COMET), University of Nottingham .

Pill, J. & Harding, L. (2011, November/December). Defining the language assessment literacy “gap”: a case study. Paper presented at the ALAA 36th Congress, University of Canberra and the Australian National University, Canberra, Australia. 6

Pill, J. & Neve, G. (2011, October). The Occupational English Test: Recent developments and the project „Towards improved healthcare communication‟. Paper presented at the Department of Education, Employment and Workplace Relations 2011 Assessing Authorities Meeting, Australia.

Wette, R. (2011). English proficiency Test and communication skills training for overseas-qualified health professionals in Australia and New Zealand. Language Assessment Quarterly 8, 2, 200-210.

Woodward-Kron, R., Elder, C., McNamara, T. & Pill, J. (2011, May). Are linguistic assessment criteria ethically defensible for LSP assessment? Paper presented at the 8th Annual EALTA Conference, Università per Stranieri, Siena, Italy.

2010

Elder, C., Woodward-Kron, R., Pill, J., McNamara, T., McColl, G., Manias, E., Webb, G. (2010, September). Identifying what matters for effective clinical communication: Whose criteria? Poster presented at the International Conference on Communication in Healthcare, European Association for Communication in Healthcare (EACH), Polo Zanotto University of Verona

Harding, L. & Neve, G. (2010). The OET listening sub-test: Specifications and development. Paper presented at the OET Forum “Building the future together”, Melbourne, Australia.

McNamara, T. (2010, November). Whose criteria? Assessment of English for Specific Purposes. Presentation at the International Conference on English for Specific Purposes (ICESP), National Taipei University.

Oh, H. (2010). Overseas health professionals’ perspectives on the OET. Masters thesis: University of Melbourne.

Pill, J. (2010, July). Medical professionals’ criteria for effective communication: Examples from feedback to trainees. Presentation at the 20th Anniversary Colloquium LTRC, University of Melbourne.

Pill, J. (2010, October). Towards improved healthcare communication: Project update. Paper presented at the OET Forum, Melbourne, Australia.

Pill, J., (2010, November). Assessing the communication skills of medical professionals: Which criteria? Paper presented at Linguistics and Applied Linguistics Postgraduate Conference 2010, School of Languages and Linguistics, University of Melbourne

Pill, J., Elder, C., McNamara, T., Woodward-Kron, R., Manias, E. & McColl, G. (2010, December). Defining criteria to assess the communication skills of medical practitioners: Implications for a specific-purpose language test. Paper presented at the Healthcare Communication Symposium, University of Melbourne, Australia.

Pill, J., Elder, C., Woodward-Kron, R. (2010, July). Medical professionals’ criteria for effective communication: Examples from feedback to trainees. Paper presented at the 35th Congress Applied Linguistics Association of Australia (ALAA), University of Queensland, Brisbane

Pill, J., Elder, C., Woodward-Kron, R., McNamara, T., McColl, G., Manias, E., Webb, G. (2010, November). Towards standard setting for clinical communication skills: Which criteria? Paper presented at the 15th National Prevocational Medical Education Forum, Postgraduate Medical Council Victoria (PMCV), Melbourne.

Woodward-Kron, R., Elder, C., Pill.J. (2010, May). Towards standard setting for clinical communication skills: Which criteria? Presentation at the Staff Seminar, Medical Education Unit, University of Melbourne.

Woodward-Kron,R., Elder, C., Pill, J., McNamara, T., McColl, G., Manias, E., Webb, G.,(2010, June). Towards standard setting for clinical communication skills: Which criteria? Paper presented at the 8th Interdisciplinary Conference Communication, Medicine and Ethics (COMET), Boston University.

Woodward-Kron, R., Pill, J., Flynn, E., Stevens, M. (2010, September). The language of communication skills teaching: A linguistic perspective of the communication skills lexicon. Presentation at the International Conference on Communication in Healthcare, European Association for Communication in Healthcare (EACH), Polo Zanotto University of Verona

2009

Elder, C., Harding, L. & Knoch, U. (2009). Reading for the health professions: The Occupational English Reading Test revisited. Interim Report. Language Testing Research Centre, University of Melbourne.

Elder, C., Harding, L. & Knoch, U. (2009, June). OET Reading Revision Study: Final Report. 38pp. Melbourne: Language Testing Research Centre. 2

Harding, L. & Knoch, U. (2009). Revising the OET reading sub-test. Paper presented at the OET Forum, Melbourne, Australia.

Harding, L. & Ryan, K. (2009). Decision-making in marking open-ended listening test items: The case of the OET. Spaan Fellow Working Papers in Second or Foreign Language Assessment, 7, 99-114.

Knoch, U. (2009, March 17-20). Investigating the effectiveness of individualized feedback for rating behaviour: a longitudinal study. Paper presented at the 31st Language Testing Research Colloquium, Denver, Colorado.

Knoch, U. (2009, March 14-15). Investigating the effectiveness of individualized feedback to rating behaviour – a longitudinal study. Annual Conference of the American Association of Applied Linguistics, Denver, Colorado.

Knoch, U., Elder, C. & Harding, L. (2009, August). Report on Relating the Occupational English Test (OET) to the Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR). 59pp. Melbourne: Language Testing Research Centre.

Read, J., & Wette, R. (2009). Achieving English proficiency for professional registration: The experience of overseas-qualified health professionals in the New Zealand context. IELTS Research Reports, 10, 181-222.

Pill, J. (2009, June). The Occupational English Test: assessing the English-language proficiency of migrating medical professionals for the workplace. Poster presented at the Communication, Medicine and Ethics Conference, Cardiff, UK.

2008

Elder, C. (2008, June 25-28). Comparing tests: what to tell the stakeholders. Paper delivered at the 30th Annual Language Testing Research Colloquium, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

Harding, L., Ryan, K., & Pill, J. (2008, June). Decision-making in marking open-ended listening test items: the case of the OET. Paper presented at the ILTA Language Testing Research Colloquium, Hangzhou, China.

Knoch, U. (2008). Factors influencing prompt difficulty on the OET writing task for nurses. Language Testing Research Centre, University of Melbourne.

2007

Elder, C. (2007). OET-IELTS benchmarking study. Final report to the Occupational English Test Centre. 45pp. Language Testing Research Centre, University of Melbourne.

Pill, J., & Roever, C. (2007, April). The Occupational English Test: testing English proficiency for professional purposes. Paper presented at the Australian Government Assessing Authorities’ Conference, Melbourne, Australia.

Ryan, K. (2007). Assessing the OET: the nurses’ perspective. Unpublished Master’s Thesis. School of Languages and Linguistics, University of Melbourne.

Pill, J. (2007). The Occupational English Test: Testing English proficiency for professional purposes through contextualised communication. IATEFL Testing, Evaluation and Assessment SIG Newsletter, Winter, 32-34.

Pill, J. (2007, April). The Occupational English Test: assessing English skills of medical professionals. Paper presented at the IATEFL Conference 2007, Aberdeen, UK.

2006

Chan, H. (2006). Test-taker discourse and assessment criteria in the OET speaking sub- test. Unpublished Masters Thesis. School of Languages and Linguistics, University of Melbourne.

2004

Basturkmen, H. & Elder, C. (2004). The Practice of LSP. In A. Davies & C. Elder, (Eds.), Handbook of Applied Linguistics (pp. 672-694). London: Blackwell.

2003

Iwashita, N. & Grove, E. (2003). A comparison of analytic and holistic scales in the 3 context of a specific-purpose speaking test. Prospect, 18(3), 25-35.

2001

Davies, A. (2001). The logic of testing languages for specific purposes. Language Testing, 18(2), 133-147.

2000/Pre 2000

Alderson, J., Candlin, C., Clapham, C., Martin, D. & Weir, C. (1986). Language proficiency testing for migrant professionals: new directions for the Occupational English Test. Report submitted to the Council on Overseas Professional Qualifications. Institute for English Language Education University of Lancaster, Lancaster.

Douglas, D. (2000). Assessing languages for specific purposes. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Jacoby, S. & McNamara, T. (1999). Locating competence. English for Specific Purposes, 18( 3), 213-241.

Lumley, T. (1995). The judgements of language-trained raters and doctors in a test of English for health professionals. Melbourne Papers in Language Testing, 4(1), 74-98.

Lumley, T. (1998). Perceptions of language-trained raters and occupational experts in a test of occupational English language proficiency. English for Specific Purposes, 17(4), 347-367.

Lumley, T. & Brown, A. (1996). Specific-purpose language performance tests: task and mteraction. In G. Wigglesworth & C. Elder, (Eds.), The testing cycle: From inception to washback, Australian Review of Applied Linguistics, Series S, vol. 13 (pp. 105-36). Canberra, Australian National University.

Lumley, T., Lynch, B. & McNamara, T. (1994). A new approach to standardsetting in language assessment. Melbourne Papers in Language Testing, 3(2), 19-40.

Lumley, T. & McNamara, T. (1995). Rater characteristics and rater bias: implications for training. Language Testing, 12(1). 54-71.

McNamara, T. (1987). Assessing the language proficiency of health professionals. Recommendations for reform of the Occupational English Test. Report submitted to the Council on Overseas Professional Qualifications. Department of Russian and Language Studies, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria.

McNamara, T. (1988). The development of an English as a Second Language speaking test for health professionals. Part One of a Report to the Council on Overseas Professional Qualifications on a consultancy to develop the Occupational English Test. Department of Russian and Language Studies, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria.

McNamara, T. (1989a). The development of an English as a Second Language writing test for health professionals. Part Two of a Report to the Council on Overseas Professional Qualifications on a consultancy to develop the Occupational English Test. Department of Russian and Language Studies, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria.

McNamara, T. (1989b). ESP testing: general and particular. In C. Candlin & C. McNamara, (Eds.), Language, learning and community (pp. 125-142). National Centre for English Language Teaching and Research, Macquarie University.

McNamara, T. (1990a). Assessing the second language proficiency of health professionals. PhD Thesis. University of Melbourne.

McNamara, T. (1990b). Item Response Theory and the validation of an ESP test for health professionals. Language Testing, 7(1), 52-76.

McNamara, T. (1991a). Test dimensionality: IRT analysis of an ESP listening test. Language Testing, 8(2), 139-159.

McNamara, T. (1991b). The role of Item Response Theory in language test validation. In S. Anivan, (Ed.), Current developments in language testing (pp. 165-184). SEAMED Regional Language Centre, Singapore.

McNamara, T. (1996). Measuring second language performance. London: Longman.

McNamara, T. (1997a). Problematising content validity: the Occupational English Test (OET) as a measure of medical communication. Melbourne Papers in Language Testing, 6(1), 19-43.

McNamara, T. (1997b). Interaction in second language performance assessment: Whose performance? Applied Linguistics, 18(4), 446-466. 5

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Who Recognises OET?

OET is recognised and trusted by healthcare boards and councils in Australia, New Zealand and Singapore. Many organisations, including hospitals, universities and colleges, are using OET as proof of a candidate’s ability to communicate effectively in a demanding healthcare environment.